Bladder Carcinoma

What Is It ?

Bladder cancer is one of the common cancer affecting the urinary bladder,It ranks the fourth most common among all the cancer in men and nineth most common in women.

Symptoms

One of the common presentation is blood in the urine and increased frequency of urine,some time patients may pass tissue bits in the urine.

Risks

The common problem with the bladder cancer is recurrence and progression.

Treatment

In can be divided into two groups according to the invasion as non muscle invasive and muscle invasive bladder carcinoma.

Once it confirmed it can be treated either by endoscopically or by removing the urinary bladder depends on the stage of the cancer at presentation.

Non muscle invasive bladder cancer can be treated by endoscopic methods called Trans urethral Resection of bladder Tumour(TURBT) followed by giving medicines into the bladder (intra vesical chemo or immune therapy)and needs regular check up to prevent the recurrence.

Once the disease diagnosed as muscle invasive the bladder has to be removed and urinary diversion has to be made If bladder cancer diagnosed early it can be cured and prevented by banning smoking.

              

         Bladder cancer Cystoscopy                                                   Bladder cancer CT Scan

                           Radical custectomy with the tumour in the bladder                              

Causes

It is caused by the occupational exposure of dyes,smoking and long standing irritation due to infections and stones etc.Smokers are twice more prone for cancers than the non smokers.

Exams and Tests

It can be diagnosed by routine clinical examination and some simple investigations like urine cytology and ultra sonography and final confirmation by seeing the urinary bladder with cystoscopy and taking biopsy.