How Robotic Surgery is Done

Robotic Surgeries are advanced version of laparoscopic Surgeries. In compared to open surgeries, laparoscopic surgeries are advanced and less invasive. But laparoscopic surgery has its own limitations. It is very effective for normal routine procedures but when there are more complex surgeries involved; option of laparoscopic surgery is not feasible. In such surgeries, greater precision is required and it is only possible by the most advanced robotic surgeries.

In cases such as radical prostatectomy, the target (prostate) is delicate and tightly surrounded with the nerves affecting urinary control and sexual functions. Using the robots your surgeon has a better tool to spare surrounding nerves, which may enhance in recovery experience and clinical outcomes.

 

Robotic Surgery has added advantage such as:

  • Less Pain
  • Less Scarring
  • Less Blood Loss
  • Faster recovery to normal activities

At Centre for Robotic Surgery a super specialty initiative of Muljibhai Patel Urology Hospital, we use da Vinci Si® surgical system instruments for surgeries related to Nephro-Urology. We generally receive the comments that how will the surgery be made? Will there be a doctor available or only robots will perform the surgeries? Well, this article is written to clear those confusions. Let’s observe the picture given in fig (A).

Figure A: da Vinci Si® surgical instrument

In laparoscopic surgeries, several incisions are made and small camera and other instruments are inserted through them. This camera is connected with the visual output unit where surgeons can see inside view of the patients’ body.

In robotic surgery, the surgical instruments are hooked up to the machine, and surgeon sits at one console to operate them. Here high definition 3-D camera is inserted in patient’s body and the 3D display is shown on the screen. We call this entire setup as Robot. Here actual surgery is performed by doctors, but through mechanical arms. In the above image, you can see

  1. Surgeon’s Console – Surgeon sits here and operates robots. This console also has the video output from where surgeon can view the inner part of patient’s body.
  2. Image Processing Equipment – It’s a video output to see the ongoing surgery to anesthesiologist, other doctors and nurse.
  3. Endowrist Instruments – They are the human wrist like instruments to provide superior motion control, precision and fluid ambidexterity.
  4. Surgical Arm Cart – They are robotic hands acts like human arms
  5. Hi-Resolution 3-D Endoscope – It has high definition 3-D camera at its end which is inserted in to patient’s body through separate incision.

Now it’s an obvious question that what are the advantages of doing so?

robotic surgery in IndiaFigure – B High Definition 3D Vision with Zooming

Above is the video snippet from Dr. Mahesh Desai who is current president of Endourology Society and Medical Director at Muljibhai Patel Urology Hospital, Nadiad. He describes the advantages in his video. To view click here.

Advantages of robotic surgeries are:

  1. High Definition 3-D Vision: You are able to see target organ with much more clarity. The Zoom option shows the picture bigger and 3-D vision shows the depth.
  2. Greater Precision: In laparoscopy, after long time the surgeon usually gets tired. This effect in tremors in his / her hands. Robotic arms solve this issue. It enables 360 degree moment which is not possible by human hand.
  3. Quick Recovery: It requires very small incisions to operate through robots. Which is not the case with open surgery? This helps in fewer traumas, less pain and less loss of blood. Ultimately it results in to faster recovery.

A new era of tele-surgery:

Robotic surgery has opened new era of surgery. While human doctors will still perform common types of surgeries, robots will perform complex surgeries that are seemingly impossible even if attempted. The console is not attached with surgical arm-cart. That means surgeon can operate on patient. by sitting at distant place. In future, it will be possible for surgeon to sit in one country and operate a patient located at remote place.

The only point of consideration would be latency – that means there will a time delay in transmission of signals from one end to other end and vice versa. This will lead to delay in moment in surgeon’s hands and robotic hands. But it will be sorted out sooner with the use of technology. This will give birth to the concept of tele-surgery. It will also lead to modify international laws on surgery.

Technology is a boon to medicines. Robotic surgery is increasingly becoming popular. It takes a huge cost of investment and in training and development. Since the purchasing, installment and maintenance costs are very high, the surgery is comparatively costly. Day by day this surgery is becoming popular and sooner the cost associated will be lowered. It requires spreading awareness among people and erasing the myths for traditional thinking of “Robots”.

Source: How Stuff works