Robotic Surgery is the Best Option for Kidney Treatment

21st century has seen a boom in the medical industry with several new technologies being invented to treat complicated diseases. Da Vinci robot assisted surgery being one of them. This type of surgery has proved advantageous for both surgeons and patients for the treatment of numerous complicated diseases, including kidney related surgeries.

Kidneys play an important role in the functioning of human body system. We all know that they are two small bean-shaped organs located behind the abdomen and above the waist. Its main role is in processing blood, regulating blood pressure, maintaining calcium levels, and removing wastes, toxic substances, and excess fluids from the body. Kidney related disorders include:

• Bladder Problems
• Ureter Blockage
• Kidney Cancer and
• Kidney stones

In case when both the kidneys get damaged, “kidney transplantation” takes place.

With the help of robotic surgery the doctors are able to conduct operation with much precision that was never before possible earlier. The Da Vinci Surgical System is the state-of-the-art technology helping doctors to provide several benefits concerning kidney surgery, including less complication during operation, controlling of kidney cancer, less pain & scarring, relatively low blood loss, low risk of infection, faster recovery, and comparatively less expense because stay in hospital is much shorter.

The pencil-thin four arms of robot holing camera in one hand and surgical instruments in other three are able to operate through a patient’s body in such a precise manner compared to traditional open surgery that it is helping surgeons to gain expertise in kidney or kind of urological surgeries like never before. Though the robot is performing the operation but actually it’s the surgeon who is in total control of the machine. Sitting behind the console, the surgeon provides instruction to the robot to move its arms for conducting the operation and its every move is monitored thoroughly. A well trained person is required to provide instructions to the robot but overall the Da Vinci assisted Robotic Surgery has made the operation of complicated diseases much easier.

So it’s advisable that if a patient is suffering from a complex kidney ailment then he/she should opt for Robotic Surgery, as this will help them to return back to the day-to-day activities of their life in a faster manner.

Symptoms of Kidney Failure

People suffering from Chronic Kidney Diseases suffer from a very subtle symptoms which often go unnoticed. The time period between Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Kidney failure is undetermined. It may take years and also may happen soon, depending on case-to-case basis. Kidney failures can be determined with early stage symptoms which are necessary to be identified. Let us discuss the symptoms of kidney failures:

• The beginning is often asymptomatic which means there would be a very less amount of visible symptoms but as the disease advances the kidneys would be unable to regulate water, balance the electrolytes, remove the waste from the body, and produce red blood cells. Such a person would often undergo Lethargic behavior, uneasiness, weakness, short of breath, and general swelling.

• The body would be unable to manufacture bicarbonate due to which the body acidity increases. It is known as metabolic acidosis. Such body dysfunction would alter the enzyme and oxygen metabolism which would end with an organ failure.

• Kidney would not be able to excrete the potassium from the body thereby increasing its level in the serum and it causes fatal heart rhythm disturbance.

• Urea level rises in the blood and it affects various body organs like brain, heart, muscles and would also be responsible for low calcium levels in the body.

• Weakness may be due to anemia but in certain cases the red blood cell counts starts decreasing due to the lower level of erythropoietin which is caused due to the kidney failure. It reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood and hence the body gets tired very soon.

• Loss of appetite and fatigue becomes regular and if it continues, it may affect the mental balance which may end up in comma.
• Rising blood pressure due to excess of fluid present in the body is another symptom for kidney failure and the fluid may start to deposit on lungs which ends with heart failure.

The symptoms of kidney failure would vary a lot depending on patient to patient and also it depends on what kind of treatment you undergo.

Test required to diagnose the Kidney Failure

• Kidney failures can be diagnosed with blood test. The buildup of waste product would determine the kidney failures. BUN, GFR, and Creatinine are essential factors to determine the condition of kidneys. When the BUN and Creatinine level rises up in the blood and the GFR level decreases, the kidney failure is confirmed. The above mentioned three factors determines the rate with which the blood is filtered through the kidneys. The rate would always differ depending on the age, gender, and race of the person.

• Urine can be used to determine the Kidney failure. With a urine test, the doctor would measure the amount of protein and the presence of abnormal cells in it. If protein is found in the urine, it points towards something abnormal in the body. Abnormally aggregated red and white blood cells in the kidney denotes the presence of Kidney Disease.

• Abdominal Ultrasound test can determine the size of the kidney. If any obstruction is seen in he reports, it denotes presence of Kidney Disease.

Chronic Kidney Disease: Facts, Symptoms & Treatments

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a term used to describe the slow loss of kidney function in a person. Normal kidneys are able to filter wastes and extra fluids from the blood, which then get excreted in the urine. But due to chronic kidney disease this normal functionality is impaired, and when the disease progresses further, it can lead to the building up of dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and wastes in the body. When the level of kidney function falls below a certain level, it is called kidney failure.

Chronic Kidney Disease: Quick Facts

  • Diabetes and high blood pressure are the two leading causes of kidney disease.
  • Kidney disease is likely to cause kidney failure in men more than in women.
  • African Americans, Hispanics, Pacific Islanders, and American Indians are at increased risk.
  • Kidney disease can develop at any age, but affects the elderly more. Around 50% of people aged 75 and above are estimated to have CKD.
  • In the developing countries, around 1 million people die annually due to untreated kidney disease.
  • Generally, kidney transplant success rates are very good, with around 85-90% success rate for deceased donor transplant and 90-95% rate for live donor transplant.
  • Almost 8-10% of the adult population suffers from some type of kidney damage.
  • There are five stages of kidney disease, stage 5 being the End-Stage-Renal-Disease (ESRD), also known as kidney failure.

Causes of Kidney Disease

There are a number of conditions and diseases that can lead to CKD, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, polycystic kidney disease, interstitial nephritis, family history, etc. Out of these, diabetes and high blood pressure are two main causes contributing to around 2/3rd of all CKD cases. Kidney disease can make a person develop various health complications including weak bones, anemia, nerve damage, and heart diseases and stroke. Most often these problems manifest very gradually and therefore, aren’t easily noticed. As a result, chronic kidney disease can get significantly worse before it can be diagnosed and treated. In many situations, this can lead to kidney failure in the patient which can prove to be fatal without dialysis or kidney transplant.

Some of the other, less prevalent causes of CKD are glomerulonephritis (inflammations) or pyelonephritis (infections). CKD can also be caused due to inherited conditions (such as polycystic disease), enlarged prostate, kidney stones, malformations in a baby when in the mother’s womb, tumors, frequent urinary infections, lupus and other diseases that affect body’s immune system.

Certain drugs like analgesics (pain-killers), if taken over a prolonged period of time, can also lead to kidney disease.

Symptoms of Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease usually doesn’t present any symptoms until it has advanced to a much later stage. In the advanced stages, kidney disease can cause:

  • Fatigue, weakness, lethargy
  • Pain during urination
  • Foamy/Pink/Dark urine (blood in urine)
  • Need to urinate more often
  • Fluid retention leading to swelling of ankles, face, hands, abdomen, ankles, feet, eyes
  • Increase in thirst
  • Loss of appetite
  • Difficulty in concentrating
  • Difficulty in sleeping
  • Muscle cramps
  • Dry, itchy skin

Diagnosis and Treatment

Chronic kidney disease can be diagnosed by means of certain tests and procedures such as:

Blood tests: These can include a blood creatinine test to determine the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR), a blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test, a fasting blood glucose test and some other tests that check for the amount of waste products and electrolytes in the blood.

Click here to learn more about GFR and its correlation to Chronic Kidney Diease.

Urine tests: These are used to measure the amount of protein in urine (ideally none), by means of Urinalysis (UA) and a urine test for microalbumin.

Imaging tests: A renal ultrasound and/or angiogram may also be conducted by the doctor to check any obstructions to the kidney or reasons for restricted blood flow.

Kidney biopsy: This procedure may also be used by the doctor to find out the reason for kidney disease, particularly after a kidney transplant if there is the possibility of organ rejection. The biopsy process involves removing a sample of kidney tissue by inserting a thin, long needle through your skin and into the kidney.

Early screening of kidney disease is recommended to those who are suffering from high blood pressure or diabetes. Unless the disease has reached the advanced stages, it can be managed by means of medications and leading a healthy lifestyle.

In patients suffering from either diabetes or high blood pressure, it is crucial to control the sugar levels and blood pressure respectively, in order to prevent further damage to the kidneys. By properly assessing the extent of damage to the kidneys as well as the contributory factors, the doctor will create a comprehensive treatment plan.

With inputs from:

1. Webmd.com

2. Worldkidneyday.org

 

Robotic Nephrectomy – Advancement in Laparoscopic Surgery

Kidneys are the essential part of human body which helps to purify the blood. It extracts the wastes from the blood and acts as a natural filter, the wastes are diverted to the urinary bladder and the purified blood is diverted towards heart. Bean shaped kidneys are located on each side of lower back of human body. The left kidney is slightly larger than the right one.

Kidney cancer is somewhat more common in men and is usually diagnosed between the ages of 50 and 70 years. The reason of kidney cancer is unidentified, although it may be connected to numerous risk factors such as smoking, obesity, workplace exposure to chemicals, high blood pressure. Every year, kidney cancer is analyzed about 190,000 people worldwide.

It is important to realize that robotic surgery in Indiawith early diagnosis and treatment, kidney cancer can be cured. In fact, the survival rate ranges from 79 to 100 percent. Treatment of maximum kidney cancers starts with exclusion of the primary tumor in an operation called a nephrectomy. The main reason of surgery is to remove the primary tumor and complex tissue in the kidney. Even if cancer has already circulate, a nephrectomy might still be helpful because the body then have fewer cancerous cells to fight through treatments that doctors prescribed after surgery.

Kidney Cancer does not have an early symptom but now before consulting the doctor one can observe the symptoms of cancer by his own.

Followings are possible symptoms:
• Blood in urine
• Lump in your abdomen or side
• Unexplained weight loss
• Pain in your side that doesn’t go away
• Loss of appetite
• Extreme fatigue
• Anemia

Kidney cancer that propagates to other parts of our body may create other symptoms, like:
• Shortness of breath
• Coughing up blood
• Bone pain

Some of the Causes & Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer are as follows.

Investigators have found numerous risk factors that make you more likely to grow kidney cancer. The following are some of the risk factors for developing kidney cancer:
• Smoking
• Hypertension
• Having certain hereditary conditions, such as von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease or inherited papillary renal cell carcinoma.
• Obesity
• Family history of kidney cancer
• Chronic kidney dialysis and/or failure
• Tuberous sclerosis (common genetic condition that produces growths in the body from birth throughout adulthood)
• Using certain pain medications for a long time.

Some of the basic Treatments for the Kidney Cancer are as follows:
• The primary treatment option for kidney cancer is to remove all or part of the kidney and the tumor.
• In many cases, there is a possibility that only some part of the kidney is affected, hence removal of cancerous part serves the purpose. Such type of surgery is called Partial Nephrectomy.
• Kidney cancer that persists and propagate to other parts of the body might not be treatable, but may be controlled with treatment
• Kidney cancer does not respond well to radiation and chemotherapy treatments.

It is advisable for patients to consult a doctor first and then decide the treatment, since treatment is dependent upon patient’s characteristics. Information provided over here is for the reference purpose only.

Why to choose Robotic Surgery:
Kidney treatment is possible by Open Surgery or Laparoscopic surgery. In open surgery, the doctors make a big scar and then perform the operation. This result in heavy blood loss and more complications.

The preferable way to open surgery is laparoscopic surgery, where tiny cuts are made by the surgeons. This surgery provides faster recovery and comparatively less complications.

The advancement to laparoscopic surgery is Robotic Kidney Surgery, where similar number of cuts is made. But in this surgery, the surgeon sits at one end and operates the robots. The robotic hands can move 360 degree and the High Definition camera provides 3D view. This helps surgeon to analyze the depth and helps him to make surgery easier.

The benefits of Robotic Kidney Surgery are:
• Excellent clinical outcomes and cancer control
• Quicker return to normal activity
• Shorter hospitalization – most go home the next day
• Less scarring than traditional open surgery
• Less blood loss
• Reduced pain – most patients don’t even need narcotics after surgery
• Fewer complications and less risk of infection
• Excellent chance of preserving the kidney, in certain operations

For more information you can visit: About Robotic Kidney Surgery

Kidney Diseases Awareness Walkathon being organized at Nadiad by MPUH – CRS

Kidney disease is a vital Pandemic; worldwide. World Kidney Day’s (WKD) goal is to raise awareness of the importance of the kidneys to the global health of the population and to diminish the frequency and impact of kidney disease and its linked health problems worldwide. World Kidney Day celebration started in 2006 jointly by International Society of Nephrology and International Federation of Kidney foundations. WKD is celebrated on 2nd Thursday of March every year all over the world. This year’s slogan is Kidneys for life; Stop Acute Kidney Injury, which attentions on the empathetic the causes, prevention and treatment of Acute Kidney Injury.

 

As a part of this programme Muljibhai Patel Urological Hospital – Centre For Robotic Surgery has organised a “Walkathon” in Nadiad on Sunday 10th March 2013. On the occasion of World Kidney Day 2013, within a short period of 48 hours, more than 400 people had registered their names with MPUH -CRS Nadiad, expressing their desire to be ‘Cadaver Kidney Donors’ in case of accidental brain death.

Objectives of World Kidney Day:

  • Raise awareness about our “amazing kidneys”: Their main role is to uphold the balance of bodily liquids by filtering and concealing metabolites and minerals from the blood and defecating them, along with water, as urine. The kidneys control blood brook levels of many minerals and molecules including sodium and potassium, and help to control blood acidity. Helps to control the Blood pressure. They strengthen the bone and increase the Haemoglobin content in the blood.
  • Highlight that diabetes and high blood pressure are key risk factors for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Inspire systematic screening of all patients with diabetes and hypertension for CKD: India is the capital of Diabetes. Type 2 (adult onset) is most common and10 to 40 percent of those finally will suffer from kidney failure: the most solemn trouble of the disease. The initial sign of diabetic kidney disease is an increased elimination of albumin in the urine. This is present extended before the usual tests done in the doctor’s office show a loss of kidney function. So it is essential to have this test on a yearly basis. Preserving control of the diabetes can lower the risk of developing both kidney failure and cardiovascular events (heart attack, strokes).
  • High blood pressure can autonomously cause CKD, and CKD can cause high blood pressure. The treatment of high blood pressure has become the most important involvement in the management of all forms of CKD. Lowering blood pressure will reduce the risk of heart disease, which for most patients with CKD, is a more immediate risk than end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It will also decrease the chance of developing ESRD requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation.
  • Encourage defensive behaviors: Reduce salt intake; plenty of fluids, Stop smoking, Regular exercise.
  • Educate all medical professionals about their important role in identifying and reducing the risk of CKD, particularly in high risk populations
  • Severe Kidney Injury: Severe Kidney Injury is a condition in which there is an unexpected drop in the function of the kidneys over hours or days with the retaining of nitrogenous waste products- it can affect anyone. In the growing world where children and young adults are at special risk for AKI because it occurs frequently as the result of gastroenteritis, poisonings, malaria or other infectious diseases. Victims of crush wounds in natural disasters such as earthquakes often die of AKI. Many cases of AKI can be prohibited simply by humanizing the community, and local and regional health care physicians about prevention and early warning signs requiring immediate intervention. It can be difficult to identify and is dangerous
  • AKI can develop in the hospital settings: approximately estimated 5% to 20% of critically ill patients (patients in the intensive care unit) experience an episode of AKI during the course of their illness. Development of AKI in the ICU has a negative impact on outcomes of any illness and also increases the death rate. To this end, greater awareness of AKI amongst the general physician and health care profession is needed. There are also important opportunities for prevention, especially by careful attention to prescription medicines management in elderly people.
  • It is estimated that AKI could be reversible in approximately 50% of the cases with early diagnosis. Awareness is low and World Kidney Day is our opportunity to change this.

Kidneys play a vital role in keeping us alive and well. World Kidney Day spreads the word that kidney disease is common, harmful & treatable: Early diagnosis and treatment improves the outcome. Kidney diseases are silent killers, which will largely affect your quality of life. There are however several easy ways to reduce the risk of developing kidney disease.

  1. Keep regular control of your blood sugar level
  2. Monitor your blood pressure
  3. Maintain a healthy fluid intake
  4. Eat healthy and keep your weight in check
  5. Keeping fit and active
  6. Do not smoke
  7. Do not take over-the-counter pills on a regular basis
  8. Check your kidney function if you have one or more of the ‘high risk’ factors.

Kidneys for Life; Stop Acute Kidney Surgery – World Kidney Day

Kidneys play a vital role in keeping us alive and well. World Kidney Day spreads the word that kidney disease is common, harmful & treatable: Early diagnosis and treatment improves the outcome. Kidney diseases are silent killers, which will largely affect your quality of life. There are however several easy ways to reduce the risk of developing kidney disease.

 

best kidney doctor in indiaWe summarize the tips here:

  1. Have your blood pressure checked regularly.
  2. Take steps to control your blood pressure. The easiest way to maintain a normal blood pressure is by lowering the amount of salt (sometimes called sodium) by not eating high-salt foods or adding salt to foods and by not becoming overweight. Check with a dietitian to create a diet that lets you eat foods you love without hurting your health.
  3. Keep your weight within the desirable range. Reduce the weight if you are overweight or obese.
  4. Tell your doctor if your family has a history of high blood pressure, diabetes or kidney disease
  5. Stay alert for changes in your urine. If you have cloudy, smelly, foamy, cola colored or bloody urine or if it hurts when you urinate, see a doctor.
  6. Watch for symptoms of anemia. If you are constantly tired, too pale, become short of breath easily or suffer from dizziness you might be anaemic.
  7. Have a yearly urine and blood test along with a physical examination if you are in a high risk group for CKD (Diabetic, hypertensive, family history).
  8. Stay active. Regular exercise will help keep your body functioning normally.
  9. Drink enough water.

How Kidneys Work – The Vital Role of the Kidney in Human Beings

We celebrate World Kidney Day on every 2nd Thursday of March each year. This year we celebrated on 14th March 2013. Now it is obvious that why do we focus much more in saving our kidneys. What type of work the kidneys really do for us, why they are so important and why it is essential to take care of the kidneys. This article is all about the workings of our kidney. They are the waste disposal system of our body, which keeps on working 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and 365 days of a year – that is without taking a single leave. When it takes a leave, our life comes to danger. Let’s explore why:

What do Kidneys do?
Have you ever thought that what will happen if the garbage collector does not appear for a week or the output of your toilet is chocked? Just imagine, how your home will look like? Similarly we can consider kidneys as garbage disposal unit of our body, without which our life comes to an end.

Kidneys are the bean shaped organ located just under the ribs and in the middle of our back. There are total two kidneys located on either side of our spinal cord. Their weight is about 0.5% of the total body weight and approx. size is about of our feast. Their main task is to purify the blood by removing the wastes.

Every day, a person’s kidneys process about 200 quarts of blood to sift out about 2 quarts of waste products and extra water. The wastes and extra water become urine, which flows to the bladder through tubes called ureters. The bladder stores urine until releasing it through urination. They requires large amount of blood to perform following tasks:

  • They clean the blood by removing the wastes such as urea, ammonia, toxic substance etc. and keep the essential elements as it is, thus they act as filter of our body.
  • Regulate the composition of blood; they keep constant concentration of various ions and other important substance such as salts and acids in body by purifying and filtering blood.
  • Maintain body’s calcium level.
  • Make red blood cells and help maintain blood composition and pH levels
  • Keep the proper balance of salts and acids in the body, and produce hormones and enzymes which help to control blood pressure, keep internal water level and maintain strong and healthy bones

Inside of Kidney:
Half cut of kidney includes following:

kidney cancer surgery

Parts:
A. Renal Vein: It transmits the processed blood, which is repaid to the body through Renal Vein.
B. Renal Artery: Kidneys obtain the blood from the renal artery; it is processed inside of kidneys.
C. Ureters: It gathers the urine from the kidney and passes to the bladder.
D. Medulla: a darker, reddish-brown, inner region
E. Renal Pelvis – It is a flat, funnel-shaped cavity that collects the urine into the ureters
F. Cortex: A light colored outer region

Nephrons (the enlarged area in this image): They are located between Cortex and Medulla. They are tiny tubular structures stretched perpendicular to the surface of kidney. There are approx. one million of such nephrons.

Each Nephron Contains:
1 & 2. Loop of Henle – A long, hairpin loop after the proximal tubule, it spreads from the cortex down into the medulla and back.
3. Peritubular capillaries – They are nearby the proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal tubule.
4. Proximal convoluted tubule or proximal tubule – The first warped region after the Bowman’s capsule; it’s in the cortex.
5. Bowman’s capsule – This closed end at the start of the nephron is placed in the cortex.
6. Distal convoluted tubule or distal tubule – This second warped portion of the nephron after the loop of Henle is located in the cortex.

Overall, the process of waste removal from the body is as follows:

  • We eat the food and it enters into stomach. It is wrecked in to smaller particles and turned into nutrients.
  • This nutrient consists of solid and liquid.
  • The solid part enters into long intestine, where solid waste products are removed and nutrients are absorbed in the blood stream.
  • Such nutrients are used by the body in terms of energy utilization, to fight from the antibodies, and repairing and maintenance of any body part.
  • The wastes are transferred by blood and it then enters into kidneys.
  • Kidney filters blood from the smallest micro part called as Nephrons.
  • The waste is sent to bladder via ureter and it is stored in the bladder. Which we call as urine.
  • When sufficient urine is collected in bladder, the muscles contracts, which gives urge to urinate and we release urine via urethra.

The filtration process is carried out under pressure inside the Bowman’s capsule. The waste is consists of small molecules, small proteins, urea, glucose etc. The capacity of the filtration process is approx. 180 liters a day. This means if we have 7 to 8 liters of blood in our body, then kidney filters blood about 20-25 times each day.

The filtrate only covers small particles and water, and no Red Blood Cells. If we get blood in urine, then it is owing to hematuria. This is a conceivable sign of Kidney failure. If we get such difficulties then it is counseled to consult urologist directly.

Why do kidneys fail?
Maximum kidney diseases attack the nephrons, initiating them to lose their filtering capacity. Damage to the nephrons can happen rapidly, often as the result of injury or poisoning. But most kidney diseases abolish the nephrons leisurely and silently. Only after years or even decades will the damage become apparent. Most kidney diseases attack both kidneys concurrently.

The two most communal reasons of kidney disease are diabetes and high blood pressure. People with a family history of any kind of kidney problem are also at risk for kidney disease.

We will learn about Chronic Kidney Diseases (CKD) in next article.

To summarize, kidney separates blood and the waste. They flush the wastes and keep you healthy. Love your kidneys.

An Introduction to Kidney Stones

Kidney Stone and Kidney Stone Surgery

At times a small Calcium Crystal Stone forms inside the part of the Kidney where the Urine is collected. The stones cause pain while urinating. The problem increases when Calcium Crystal Stones falls into the Ureter, a tube that drains the fluid from the Kidneys in to the bladder. There the stones prevent Urine from coming out of the Kidneys and causes severe pain.kidney stone surgery

Kidney removes waste from the body and filters the Blood to make Urine. The same Urine flows from the kidney into the bladder through the Ureter, a thin tube that connects the two. The Bladder empties through the Urethra, a tube much wider than the Ureter.

Urine from the Kidney excrete a variety of minerals and chemicals, when sometimes these minerals and chemicals combine to form stones. With the passage of time, the stones grow in size, sometimes almost an inch in diameter or even larger.

How are they formed?

The reason isn’t exactly known, but usually changes in the acid-base balance (pH) of the urine and the concentration of minerals and chemicals within the urine are all factors that can signify the formation of a stone. Concentrated urine often occurs during an episode of dehydration, setting the stage for the beginning of stone formation. The consequences of that stone, when it is large enough to cause an obstruction, may occur weeks, months, or years later.

Risks Involved

A Kidney stone can infect the Kidney with Pyelonephritis, an inflammation of the renal parenchyma, calyces, and pelvis that is commonly caused by bacterial infection that can spread to the urinary tract or travel through the bloodstream to the kidneys.

When kidney stones pass from the urine collection system into the ureter, they can act like a dam preventing easy flow of urine from the kidney into the bladder. This causes urine to back up, increasing pressure and swelling within the kidney.

Pain in the process

Pain from the Kidney and as the stone passes through the Ureter, the pain increases. Kidney Pain is also known as renal colic Stone can be excruciating and its intensity is similar to that of pain experienced during a child birth. The pain starts from the lower back and radiates to the front of abdomen and in males, it may cause testicular or scrotal pain. It makes the individual totally uncomfortable. Kidney Stone has side effects like Nausea, Vomiting and Sweating.

If not treated the intense pain would be continuous and the pain would considerably increase. Once the stone is in the Bladder, the obstruction is relieved.

Passing of the stone

Since a Urethra is much larger in size than the Ureter, passing of the stone is an easy thing. It passes easily while Urinating and most patients cannot tell when they have eliminated the stone from their bladder.

The severity of the pain does not depend on the size of the stone, but it rather depends on the amount of obstruction and Kidney swelling. Many a times, when Kidney stone passes through the urine’s, a small amount of blood is visible.

Next Article:

In next article we will understand the symptoms and kidney stone surgery.

An Introduction to Kidney Stones Part – 2

KIDNEY STONE
Small hard deposits made of acid salts and minerals forms on the interior of Kidneys and are commonly known as Kidney Stones. There are many reasons for why this Stones are formed and it can have severe effect on the Urinary Tract System, Kidneys, and Urinary Bladder. Stones are formed when the Urine gets concentrated, allowing mineral to crystallize and later they stick together in their solid state.
As the Kidney Stone passes through the Urinary Bladder it causes immense pain. While it causes no permanent damage, it does pain a lot. A lot of water intake would help the Kidney Stone pass effortlessly.
There are instances wherein the Stones have to be removed with the help of a surgery. The type of treatment would depend on the doctor’s recommendation to reduce the risk of recurrent Kidney Stones and also to be away from the risk of developing it again.

SYMPTOMS OF KIDNEY STONE
A Kidney Stone shows no symptoms until it starts moving inside the Kidney or when it passes into the Ureter. Ureter is the tube connecting Kidney and Bladder and when the Stone touches the walls of Ureter, it causes various symptoms.
Following are the symptoms of Kidney Stones:

  • Severe pain in the side and back, below the ribs
  • Pain that spreads to the lower abdomen and groin
  • Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
  • Pain on urination
  • Pink, red or brown urine
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Persistent urge to urinate
  • Urinating more often than usual
  • Fever and chills if an infection is present

DIAGNOSIS OF KIDNEY STONES
If you suspect a Kidney Stone, it’s better to get it diagnosed. It requires certain tests and procedures:
Blood Test: It determines the level of Calcium and Uric acid in the blood. Also it helps monitor the heath of Kidneys and diagnose its conditions.
Urine Test: It requires 24 hours collection of the Urine to know the amount of stones that the person is excreting through Urine.
Imaging Test: With the help of this test, one can see the amount, and size of stones, present in the Kidney. The person would have to undergo X-ray or CT scan that may reveal the required information. Normally, tiny stones are missed during an X-ray but CT scan would capture it all. Other imaging options include an ultrasound, a noninvasive test, and intravenous pyelography, which involves injecting dye into your arm vein and taking X-rays as the dye travels through your kidneys and bladder.
Analysis of stone: In this test, the person is asked to urinate through a strainer to catch the stones. A further lab analysis would reveal the make-up of this stones. Doctor would determine the causes of stones through this analysis.

PROGNOSIS
More than 80% of the Kidney stones passes on their own but it has been observed that Kidney Stones often have high recurrence rate and the patient can develop another stones within 10 years of life span.
Once the type of the stone is determined, the risk of recurrence can be minimized. Analysis of the stone after capturing it would tell its type. In otherwise healthy patients, the major complications of a kidney stone is the potential for infection or the inability to control pain or nausea.

PREVENTING THE KIDNEY STONES

  • Keeping yourself hydrated is the best way to prevent the Kidney Stones. One should be drinking adequate amount of water especially those who sweat more
  • For those with underlying medical conditions, chronic medications are very important
  • It is very essential to drink more water and urinate more for the stone to be excreted in the initial stages itself