AUA Segura International Urolithiasis Course Inaugurated at MPUH – CRS, Nadiad

Muljibhai Patel Urological Hospital (MPUH)Centre for Robotic Surgery (CRS), Nadiad has organized a major International Seminar ‘American Urological Association (AUA) Segura International Urolithiasis Course during 21-23 February 2013. This was for the first time that the AUA Segura Course has conducted outside the USA in India at Nadiad Kidney Hospital. More than 450 faculties and delegates from about 20 countries have participated in the most prestigious programme on stone disease. The Seminar was inaugurated on 21st Feb by the Chairman of MPUH – CRS, Shri Rohit J Patel in the presence of ‘who-is-who’ in the field of kidney stone management from abroad and India. Some of the popular names participated in the conference including Prof. Glenn Preminger, AUA Representative; Dr John Denstedt, Treasurer of Endourological Society; Dr. Luc Valiquette, President-elect of SIU, Dr Meyappan, President of Urological Society of India; Prof. Dr. Andreas J Gross; Dr. Michael Wong; Dr. Mahesh Desai, Medical Director of MPUH & President, World Endourological Society and Dr R B Sabnis, Chairman, Dept of Urology Hospital, MPUH – CRS.

MPUH – CRS is ‘complete’ in all respects, in the treatment of stone disease, has done close to 26,000 procedures for removal of kidney stones by many methods, e.g. ESWL, Flexible Ureteroscopy, PCNL, Micro-perc, etc. MPUH – CRS has published 165 peer reviewed/indexed technical papers. It is in credit of these high standards and expertise on stone disease that the AUA permitted the authorization to MPUH – CRS to organize the AUA Segura International Urolithiasis Course at Nadiad. Dr Segura was a pioneer in the stone disease, and was a Founder-Member of World Endourology Society. In 2004, MPUH – CRS had hosted the World Congress on Endourology (WCE) in Mumbai when Dr Segura was elected the President of World Endourology Society. Right now Dr Mahesh Desai, the Medical Director of MPUH – CRS is the President of the Endourology Society.

India has more stone cases as compare to any other country. With the improvement in technology and new techniques in management of stone diseases, patients will be the ultimate beneficiaries. We are looking at treatment modalities that can remove stones without surgery. For the last ten years, not a single open stone surgery has been done at MPUH – CRS. MPUH –CRS has proposed to set up a Centre for Research in stone disease. Dr. Jens Rassweiler and his daughter Dr Marie Claire from Germany demonstrated for the first time outside Germany, a new technique ‘iPad guided renal access’ for clearance of stones. This technique may however take some more time for perfection.

This type of Conference offers great chances for the young and upcoming Urologists to learn from professionals in the field and explain themselves of the up-to-date developments in the field of urology. During the conference, more than 20 surgical procedures had being telecast LIVE from the operation theatres to the Conference venue for the benefit of delegates. The participants asked many questions directly to the operating surgeons to clear their doubts. They also have facilities for hands-on training on simulators and models in the JPAC labs. Many world renowned medical equipment manufacturers had set up their stalls at the Conference venue. The Conference was a grand success.

Symptoms of Kidney Failure

People suffering from Chronic Kidney Diseases suffer from a very subtle symptoms which often go unnoticed. The time period between Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Kidney failure is undetermined. It may take years and also may happen soon, depending on case-to-case basis. Kidney failures can be determined with early stage symptoms which are necessary to be identified. Let us discuss the symptoms of kidney failures:

• The beginning is often asymptomatic which means there would be a very less amount of visible symptoms but as the disease advances the kidneys would be unable to regulate water, balance the electrolytes, remove the waste from the body, and produce red blood cells. Such a person would often undergo Lethargic behavior, uneasiness, weakness, short of breath, and general swelling.

• The body would be unable to manufacture bicarbonate due to which the body acidity increases. It is known as metabolic acidosis. Such body dysfunction would alter the enzyme and oxygen metabolism which would end with an organ failure.

• Kidney would not be able to excrete the potassium from the body thereby increasing its level in the serum and it causes fatal heart rhythm disturbance.

• Urea level rises in the blood and it affects various body organs like brain, heart, muscles and would also be responsible for low calcium levels in the body.

• Weakness may be due to anemia but in certain cases the red blood cell counts starts decreasing due to the lower level of erythropoietin which is caused due to the kidney failure. It reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood and hence the body gets tired very soon.

• Loss of appetite and fatigue becomes regular and if it continues, it may affect the mental balance which may end up in comma.
• Rising blood pressure due to excess of fluid present in the body is another symptom for kidney failure and the fluid may start to deposit on lungs which ends with heart failure.

The symptoms of kidney failure would vary a lot depending on patient to patient and also it depends on what kind of treatment you undergo.

Test required to diagnose the Kidney Failure

• Kidney failures can be diagnosed with blood test. The buildup of waste product would determine the kidney failures. BUN, GFR, and Creatinine are essential factors to determine the condition of kidneys. When the BUN and Creatinine level rises up in the blood and the GFR level decreases, the kidney failure is confirmed. The above mentioned three factors determines the rate with which the blood is filtered through the kidneys. The rate would always differ depending on the age, gender, and race of the person.

• Urine can be used to determine the Kidney failure. With a urine test, the doctor would measure the amount of protein and the presence of abnormal cells in it. If protein is found in the urine, it points towards something abnormal in the body. Abnormally aggregated red and white blood cells in the kidney denotes the presence of Kidney Disease.

• Abdominal Ultrasound test can determine the size of the kidney. If any obstruction is seen in he reports, it denotes presence of Kidney Disease.

Robotic Nephrectomy – Advancement in Laparoscopic Surgery

Kidneys are the essential part of human body which helps to purify the blood. It extracts the wastes from the blood and acts as a natural filter, the wastes are diverted to the urinary bladder and the purified blood is diverted towards heart. Bean shaped kidneys are located on each side of lower back of human body. The left kidney is slightly larger than the right one.

Kidney cancer is somewhat more common in men and is usually diagnosed between the ages of 50 and 70 years. The reason of kidney cancer is unidentified, although it may be connected to numerous risk factors such as smoking, obesity, workplace exposure to chemicals, high blood pressure. Every year, kidney cancer is analyzed about 190,000 people worldwide.

It is important to realize that robotic surgery in Indiawith early diagnosis and treatment, kidney cancer can be cured. In fact, the survival rate ranges from 79 to 100 percent. Treatment of maximum kidney cancers starts with exclusion of the primary tumor in an operation called a nephrectomy. The main reason of surgery is to remove the primary tumor and complex tissue in the kidney. Even if cancer has already circulate, a nephrectomy might still be helpful because the body then have fewer cancerous cells to fight through treatments that doctors prescribed after surgery.

Kidney Cancer does not have an early symptom but now before consulting the doctor one can observe the symptoms of cancer by his own.

Followings are possible symptoms:
• Blood in urine
• Lump in your abdomen or side
• Unexplained weight loss
• Pain in your side that doesn’t go away
• Loss of appetite
• Extreme fatigue
• Anemia

Kidney cancer that propagates to other parts of our body may create other symptoms, like:
• Shortness of breath
• Coughing up blood
• Bone pain

Some of the Causes & Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer are as follows.

Investigators have found numerous risk factors that make you more likely to grow kidney cancer. The following are some of the risk factors for developing kidney cancer:
• Smoking
• Hypertension
• Having certain hereditary conditions, such as von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease or inherited papillary renal cell carcinoma.
• Obesity
• Family history of kidney cancer
• Chronic kidney dialysis and/or failure
• Tuberous sclerosis (common genetic condition that produces growths in the body from birth throughout adulthood)
• Using certain pain medications for a long time.

Some of the basic Treatments for the Kidney Cancer are as follows:
• The primary treatment option for kidney cancer is to remove all or part of the kidney and the tumor.
• In many cases, there is a possibility that only some part of the kidney is affected, hence removal of cancerous part serves the purpose. Such type of surgery is called Partial Nephrectomy.
• Kidney cancer that persists and propagate to other parts of the body might not be treatable, but may be controlled with treatment
• Kidney cancer does not respond well to radiation and chemotherapy treatments.

It is advisable for patients to consult a doctor first and then decide the treatment, since treatment is dependent upon patient’s characteristics. Information provided over here is for the reference purpose only.

Why to choose Robotic Surgery:
Kidney treatment is possible by Open Surgery or Laparoscopic surgery. In open surgery, the doctors make a big scar and then perform the operation. This result in heavy blood loss and more complications.

The preferable way to open surgery is laparoscopic surgery, where tiny cuts are made by the surgeons. This surgery provides faster recovery and comparatively less complications.

The advancement to laparoscopic surgery is Robotic Kidney Surgery, where similar number of cuts is made. But in this surgery, the surgeon sits at one end and operates the robots. The robotic hands can move 360 degree and the High Definition camera provides 3D view. This helps surgeon to analyze the depth and helps him to make surgery easier.

The benefits of Robotic Kidney Surgery are:
• Excellent clinical outcomes and cancer control
• Quicker return to normal activity
• Shorter hospitalization – most go home the next day
• Less scarring than traditional open surgery
• Less blood loss
• Reduced pain – most patients don’t even need narcotics after surgery
• Fewer complications and less risk of infection
• Excellent chance of preserving the kidney, in certain operations

For more information you can visit: About Robotic Kidney Surgery

Kidney Diseases Awareness Walkathon being organized at Nadiad by MPUH – CRS

Kidney disease is a vital Pandemic; worldwide. World Kidney Day’s (WKD) goal is to raise awareness of the importance of the kidneys to the global health of the population and to diminish the frequency and impact of kidney disease and its linked health problems worldwide. World Kidney Day celebration started in 2006 jointly by International Society of Nephrology and International Federation of Kidney foundations. WKD is celebrated on 2nd Thursday of March every year all over the world. This year’s slogan is Kidneys for life; Stop Acute Kidney Injury, which attentions on the empathetic the causes, prevention and treatment of Acute Kidney Injury.

 

As a part of this programme Muljibhai Patel Urological Hospital – Centre For Robotic Surgery has organised a “Walkathon” in Nadiad on Sunday 10th March 2013. On the occasion of World Kidney Day 2013, within a short period of 48 hours, more than 400 people had registered their names with MPUH -CRS Nadiad, expressing their desire to be ‘Cadaver Kidney Donors’ in case of accidental brain death.

Objectives of World Kidney Day:

  • Raise awareness about our “amazing kidneys”: Their main role is to uphold the balance of bodily liquids by filtering and concealing metabolites and minerals from the blood and defecating them, along with water, as urine. The kidneys control blood brook levels of many minerals and molecules including sodium and potassium, and help to control blood acidity. Helps to control the Blood pressure. They strengthen the bone and increase the Haemoglobin content in the blood.
  • Highlight that diabetes and high blood pressure are key risk factors for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Inspire systematic screening of all patients with diabetes and hypertension for CKD: India is the capital of Diabetes. Type 2 (adult onset) is most common and10 to 40 percent of those finally will suffer from kidney failure: the most solemn trouble of the disease. The initial sign of diabetic kidney disease is an increased elimination of albumin in the urine. This is present extended before the usual tests done in the doctor’s office show a loss of kidney function. So it is essential to have this test on a yearly basis. Preserving control of the diabetes can lower the risk of developing both kidney failure and cardiovascular events (heart attack, strokes).
  • High blood pressure can autonomously cause CKD, and CKD can cause high blood pressure. The treatment of high blood pressure has become the most important involvement in the management of all forms of CKD. Lowering blood pressure will reduce the risk of heart disease, which for most patients with CKD, is a more immediate risk than end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It will also decrease the chance of developing ESRD requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation.
  • Encourage defensive behaviors: Reduce salt intake; plenty of fluids, Stop smoking, Regular exercise.
  • Educate all medical professionals about their important role in identifying and reducing the risk of CKD, particularly in high risk populations
  • Severe Kidney Injury: Severe Kidney Injury is a condition in which there is an unexpected drop in the function of the kidneys over hours or days with the retaining of nitrogenous waste products- it can affect anyone. In the growing world where children and young adults are at special risk for AKI because it occurs frequently as the result of gastroenteritis, poisonings, malaria or other infectious diseases. Victims of crush wounds in natural disasters such as earthquakes often die of AKI. Many cases of AKI can be prohibited simply by humanizing the community, and local and regional health care physicians about prevention and early warning signs requiring immediate intervention. It can be difficult to identify and is dangerous
  • AKI can develop in the hospital settings: approximately estimated 5% to 20% of critically ill patients (patients in the intensive care unit) experience an episode of AKI during the course of their illness. Development of AKI in the ICU has a negative impact on outcomes of any illness and also increases the death rate. To this end, greater awareness of AKI amongst the general physician and health care profession is needed. There are also important opportunities for prevention, especially by careful attention to prescription medicines management in elderly people.
  • It is estimated that AKI could be reversible in approximately 50% of the cases with early diagnosis. Awareness is low and World Kidney Day is our opportunity to change this.

Kidneys play a vital role in keeping us alive and well. World Kidney Day spreads the word that kidney disease is common, harmful & treatable: Early diagnosis and treatment improves the outcome. Kidney diseases are silent killers, which will largely affect your quality of life. There are however several easy ways to reduce the risk of developing kidney disease.

  1. Keep regular control of your blood sugar level
  2. Monitor your blood pressure
  3. Maintain a healthy fluid intake
  4. Eat healthy and keep your weight in check
  5. Keeping fit and active
  6. Do not smoke
  7. Do not take over-the-counter pills on a regular basis
  8. Check your kidney function if you have one or more of the ‘high risk’ factors.

Kidneys for Life; Stop Acute Kidney Surgery – World Kidney Day

Kidneys play a vital role in keeping us alive and well. World Kidney Day spreads the word that kidney disease is common, harmful & treatable: Early diagnosis and treatment improves the outcome. Kidney diseases are silent killers, which will largely affect your quality of life. There are however several easy ways to reduce the risk of developing kidney disease.

 

best kidney doctor in indiaWe summarize the tips here:

  1. Have your blood pressure checked regularly.
  2. Take steps to control your blood pressure. The easiest way to maintain a normal blood pressure is by lowering the amount of salt (sometimes called sodium) by not eating high-salt foods or adding salt to foods and by not becoming overweight. Check with a dietitian to create a diet that lets you eat foods you love without hurting your health.
  3. Keep your weight within the desirable range. Reduce the weight if you are overweight or obese.
  4. Tell your doctor if your family has a history of high blood pressure, diabetes or kidney disease
  5. Stay alert for changes in your urine. If you have cloudy, smelly, foamy, cola colored or bloody urine or if it hurts when you urinate, see a doctor.
  6. Watch for symptoms of anemia. If you are constantly tired, too pale, become short of breath easily or suffer from dizziness you might be anaemic.
  7. Have a yearly urine and blood test along with a physical examination if you are in a high risk group for CKD (Diabetic, hypertensive, family history).
  8. Stay active. Regular exercise will help keep your body functioning normally.
  9. Drink enough water.

How Kidneys Work – The Vital Role of the Kidney in Human Beings

We celebrate World Kidney Day on every 2nd Thursday of March each year. This year we celebrated on 14th March 2013. Now it is obvious that why do we focus much more in saving our kidneys. What type of work the kidneys really do for us, why they are so important and why it is essential to take care of the kidneys. This article is all about the workings of our kidney. They are the waste disposal system of our body, which keeps on working 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and 365 days of a year – that is without taking a single leave. When it takes a leave, our life comes to danger. Let’s explore why:

What do Kidneys do?
Have you ever thought that what will happen if the garbage collector does not appear for a week or the output of your toilet is chocked? Just imagine, how your home will look like? Similarly we can consider kidneys as garbage disposal unit of our body, without which our life comes to an end.

Kidneys are the bean shaped organ located just under the ribs and in the middle of our back. There are total two kidneys located on either side of our spinal cord. Their weight is about 0.5% of the total body weight and approx. size is about of our feast. Their main task is to purify the blood by removing the wastes.

Every day, a person’s kidneys process about 200 quarts of blood to sift out about 2 quarts of waste products and extra water. The wastes and extra water become urine, which flows to the bladder through tubes called ureters. The bladder stores urine until releasing it through urination. They requires large amount of blood to perform following tasks:

  • They clean the blood by removing the wastes such as urea, ammonia, toxic substance etc. and keep the essential elements as it is, thus they act as filter of our body.
  • Regulate the composition of blood; they keep constant concentration of various ions and other important substance such as salts and acids in body by purifying and filtering blood.
  • Maintain body’s calcium level.
  • Make red blood cells and help maintain blood composition and pH levels
  • Keep the proper balance of salts and acids in the body, and produce hormones and enzymes which help to control blood pressure, keep internal water level and maintain strong and healthy bones

Inside of Kidney:
Half cut of kidney includes following:

kidney cancer surgery

Parts:
A. Renal Vein: It transmits the processed blood, which is repaid to the body through Renal Vein.
B. Renal Artery: Kidneys obtain the blood from the renal artery; it is processed inside of kidneys.
C. Ureters: It gathers the urine from the kidney and passes to the bladder.
D. Medulla: a darker, reddish-brown, inner region
E. Renal Pelvis – It is a flat, funnel-shaped cavity that collects the urine into the ureters
F. Cortex: A light colored outer region

Nephrons (the enlarged area in this image): They are located between Cortex and Medulla. They are tiny tubular structures stretched perpendicular to the surface of kidney. There are approx. one million of such nephrons.

Each Nephron Contains:
1 & 2. Loop of Henle – A long, hairpin loop after the proximal tubule, it spreads from the cortex down into the medulla and back.
3. Peritubular capillaries – They are nearby the proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal tubule.
4. Proximal convoluted tubule or proximal tubule – The first warped region after the Bowman’s capsule; it’s in the cortex.
5. Bowman’s capsule – This closed end at the start of the nephron is placed in the cortex.
6. Distal convoluted tubule or distal tubule – This second warped portion of the nephron after the loop of Henle is located in the cortex.

Overall, the process of waste removal from the body is as follows:

  • We eat the food and it enters into stomach. It is wrecked in to smaller particles and turned into nutrients.
  • This nutrient consists of solid and liquid.
  • The solid part enters into long intestine, where solid waste products are removed and nutrients are absorbed in the blood stream.
  • Such nutrients are used by the body in terms of energy utilization, to fight from the antibodies, and repairing and maintenance of any body part.
  • The wastes are transferred by blood and it then enters into kidneys.
  • Kidney filters blood from the smallest micro part called as Nephrons.
  • The waste is sent to bladder via ureter and it is stored in the bladder. Which we call as urine.
  • When sufficient urine is collected in bladder, the muscles contracts, which gives urge to urinate and we release urine via urethra.

The filtration process is carried out under pressure inside the Bowman’s capsule. The waste is consists of small molecules, small proteins, urea, glucose etc. The capacity of the filtration process is approx. 180 liters a day. This means if we have 7 to 8 liters of blood in our body, then kidney filters blood about 20-25 times each day.

The filtrate only covers small particles and water, and no Red Blood Cells. If we get blood in urine, then it is owing to hematuria. This is a conceivable sign of Kidney failure. If we get such difficulties then it is counseled to consult urologist directly.

Why do kidneys fail?
Maximum kidney diseases attack the nephrons, initiating them to lose their filtering capacity. Damage to the nephrons can happen rapidly, often as the result of injury or poisoning. But most kidney diseases abolish the nephrons leisurely and silently. Only after years or even decades will the damage become apparent. Most kidney diseases attack both kidneys concurrently.

The two most communal reasons of kidney disease are diabetes and high blood pressure. People with a family history of any kind of kidney problem are also at risk for kidney disease.

We will learn about Chronic Kidney Diseases (CKD) in next article.

To summarize, kidney separates blood and the waste. They flush the wastes and keep you healthy. Love your kidneys.

Tips for healthy Kidney

Kidney performs the central role in a human body. It is as important as Heart or Lungs. Many organs of the body are dependent on Kidney to function healthily. Kidney removes toxic waste and excessive fluid from blood. It also helps control the Blood Pressure and produce Hormones which are responsible for Strong and healthy bones.

According to a survey conducted for Kidney Disease, Approximately 26 million Americas were suffering from Chronic Kidney Disease till 2012. Since then the number has multiplied. In order to bring down this ever increasing number, people needs to be serious about preventing such fatal disease.

Primary risk for Kidney disease includes factors like High Diabetes, High Blood Pressure, Family History, Heart Disease etc. Obesity; Autoimmune Diseases; Urinary Tract Infections and Systemic Infections are the secondary risks.

Kidney damage occurs in stages and in most of the cases, body does not show any kind of symptom till Kidney is damaged up to 90%.

Stages of Kidney Damage

Stage 1: Slight Kidney damage

Stage 2: Mild decrease in Kidney function

Stage 3: Moderate decrease in Kidney function

Stage 4: Severe decrease in Kidney function

Stage 5: End-stage Renal Disease

Steps for maintaining a Healthy Kidney

  • Keep a control on the Blood Pressure and take every preventive measures against its increased level
  • For people suffering from Diabetes, have a control on your Glucose Level
  • Keep the cholesterol level in the appropriate range
  • If on medications, take the prescriptions on time
  • If you have a high salt intake, cut-off the intake and aim for less than 1,500 milligram sodium per day
  • Eat healthy food like fruits, frozen vegetables etc.
  • Have a limit on your alcohol intake
  • Exercise should be a compulsory part of daily routine
  • For those who are overweight need to work on reducing the weight

Smokers need to quit it slowly and gradually as smoking would led to serious Kidney damages

Expert tips for reducing your risk of kidney disease.

WHY ARE KIDNEYS IMPORTANT ?

Your Kidneys are responsible for five critical body functions

  1. Keeps the blood clean through filtration of the waste products and elimination of excessive fluids from the body in the form of urine
  2. Maintains proper balance of fluid in the body
  3. Secretes a hormone called Erythropoietin, responsible for stimulating the production of RBC (Red Blood Cells) in the Bone Marrow
  4. Produces an Enzyme called Renin, which helps maintain the body Blood Pressure
  5. Converts Vitamin D to its most active form

EFFECTS OF MODERN LIFESTYLE ON KIDNEYS
There is a general notion that all Kidney Diseases are rare and untreatable. This is far from the truth and with the progress in Science and Technology, most of the noted diseases can now be treated but modern lifestyle of a majority of people still negatively impacts people’s health which includes damage to the Kidneys. It is therefore important for everyone to be responsible and maintain a healthy lifestyle.
For Kidneys especially, bigger the load, faster they deteriorate. In this article, we focus on some simple but effective ways that can help a person minimize the stress on their Kidneys.
First of all let us look at some factors that puts considerable stress on Kidneys,

PRIMARY RISK FOR KIDNEY DISEASES

  • High Diabetes,
  • High Blood Pressure,
  • Genetic,

SECONDARY RISK FOR KIDNEY DISEASES

  • Heart Disease
  • Obesity;
  • Autoimmune Diseases;
  • Urinary Tract Infections
  • and Systemic Infections

STAGES OF KIDNEY DAMAGE

Stage 1: Slight Kidney damage
Stage 2: Mild decrease in Kidney function
Stage 3: Moderate decrease in Kidney function
Stage 4: Severe decrease in Kidney function
Stage 5: End-stage Renal Disease

TIPS FOR HEALTHY KIDNEY

Be active and eat healthy: Weight control is an important factor to control the Kidney Disease. A healthy routine and active lifestyle helps control the weight. Several studies indicate that Kidney malfunctions and Obesity are inter-related and an overweight person has double the chances of developing Kidney problems. Regular exercising with proper diet not only keeps a person fit, but also act as a preventive measure against Kidney disease.

Control BP and Diabetes: Cases of Kidney diseases as a secondary illness are getting more and more evident, especially with the people suffering from Diabetes and Hypertension. Such people should be extra careful regarding their health and take steps to control their blood sugar level to keep the Kidney disease at bay.

Reduce the salt intake: Excessive salt in the diet effects the body blood pressure. An increased blood pressure would put excessive amount of strain on Kidneys resulting in various Kidney disease. Hence once should control the excessive amount of salt intake in the body.

Smoking and Tobacco: Chewing Tobacco deteriorates the Kidneys. People who smoke a lot have higher chances of Heart Diseases. Both the factors combined to contribute towards harming the Kidneys. A Tobacco users and smokers should cut down the intake and slowly quite the practice.

Regular Screenings: There is a need to encourage patients suffering from Diabetes and Hypertension to undergo a systematic CKD screenings at regular intervals. People with Diabetes and high Blood Pressure have high risk of developing a CKD. Get your Kidneys screened regularly and know the disease in early stages.

An Introduction to Kidney Stones

Kidney Stone and Kidney Stone Surgery

At times a small Calcium Crystal Stone forms inside the part of the Kidney where the Urine is collected. The stones cause pain while urinating. The problem increases when Calcium Crystal Stones falls into the Ureter, a tube that drains the fluid from the Kidneys in to the bladder. There the stones prevent Urine from coming out of the Kidneys and causes severe pain.kidney stone surgery

Kidney removes waste from the body and filters the Blood to make Urine. The same Urine flows from the kidney into the bladder through the Ureter, a thin tube that connects the two. The Bladder empties through the Urethra, a tube much wider than the Ureter.

Urine from the Kidney excrete a variety of minerals and chemicals, when sometimes these minerals and chemicals combine to form stones. With the passage of time, the stones grow in size, sometimes almost an inch in diameter or even larger.

How are they formed?

The reason isn’t exactly known, but usually changes in the acid-base balance (pH) of the urine and the concentration of minerals and chemicals within the urine are all factors that can signify the formation of a stone. Concentrated urine often occurs during an episode of dehydration, setting the stage for the beginning of stone formation. The consequences of that stone, when it is large enough to cause an obstruction, may occur weeks, months, or years later.

Risks Involved

A Kidney stone can infect the Kidney with Pyelonephritis, an inflammation of the renal parenchyma, calyces, and pelvis that is commonly caused by bacterial infection that can spread to the urinary tract or travel through the bloodstream to the kidneys.

When kidney stones pass from the urine collection system into the ureter, they can act like a dam preventing easy flow of urine from the kidney into the bladder. This causes urine to back up, increasing pressure and swelling within the kidney.

Pain in the process

Pain from the Kidney and as the stone passes through the Ureter, the pain increases. Kidney Pain is also known as renal colic Stone can be excruciating and its intensity is similar to that of pain experienced during a child birth. The pain starts from the lower back and radiates to the front of abdomen and in males, it may cause testicular or scrotal pain. It makes the individual totally uncomfortable. Kidney Stone has side effects like Nausea, Vomiting and Sweating.

If not treated the intense pain would be continuous and the pain would considerably increase. Once the stone is in the Bladder, the obstruction is relieved.

Passing of the stone

Since a Urethra is much larger in size than the Ureter, passing of the stone is an easy thing. It passes easily while Urinating and most patients cannot tell when they have eliminated the stone from their bladder.

The severity of the pain does not depend on the size of the stone, but it rather depends on the amount of obstruction and Kidney swelling. Many a times, when Kidney stone passes through the urine’s, a small amount of blood is visible.

Next Article:

In next article we will understand the symptoms and kidney stone surgery.