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Muljibhai Patel Urological Hospital (MPUH), established in 1978, is India’s first hospital dedicated entirely to Nephrology and Urology. We are committed to providing world-class care to our patients…
World Health Day- 7 April 2015
New data on the harm caused by foodborne illnesses underscore the global threats posed by unsafe foods, and the need for coordinated, cross-border action across the entire food supply chain, according to WHO, which next week is dedicating its annual World Health Day to the issue of food safety.
World Health Day will be celebrated on 7 April, with WHO highlighting the challenges and opportunities associated with food safety under the slogan “From farm to plate, make food safe.”
“Food production has been industrialized and its trade and distribution have been globalized,” says WHO Director-General Dr Margaret Chan. “These changes introduce multiple new opportunities for food to become contaminated with harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or chemicals.”
Dr Chan adds: “A local food safety problem can rapidly become an international emergency. Investigation of an outbreak of foodborne disease is vastly more complicated when a single plate or package of food contains ingredients from multiple countries.”
Unsafe food can contain harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites or chemical substances, and cause more than 200 diseases – ranging from diarrhoea to cancers. Examples of unsafe food include undercooked foods of animal origin, fruits and vegetables contaminated with faeces, and shellfish containing marine biotoxins.
Today, WHO is issuing the first findings from what is a broader ongoing analysis of the global burden of foodborne diseases. The full results of this research, being undertaken by WHO’s Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), are expected to be released in October 2015.
Some important results are related to enteric infections caused by viruses, bacteria and protozoa that enter the body by ingestion of contaminated food. The initial FERG figures, from 2010, show that:
- there were an estimated 582 million cases of 22 different foodborne enteric diseases and 351 000 associated deaths;
- the enteric disease agents responsible for most deaths were Salmonella Typhi(52 000 deaths), enteropathogenic E. coli (37 000) and norovirus (35 000);
- the African region recorded the highest disease burden for enteric foodborne disease, followed by South-East Asia;
- over 40% people suffering from enteric diseases caused by contaminated food were children aged under 5 years.
Unsafe food also poses major economic risks, especially in a globalized world. Germany’s 2011 E.coli outbreak reportedly caused US$ 1.3 billion in losses for farmers and industries and US$ 236 million in emergency aid payments to 22 European Union Member States.
Efforts to prevent such emergencies can be strengthened, however, through development of robust food safety systems that drive collective government and public action to safeguard against chemical or microbial contamination of food. Global and national level measures can be taken, including using international platforms, like the joint WHO-FAO International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN), to ensure effective and rapid communication during food safety emergencies.
At the consumer end of the food supply chain, the public plays important roles in promoting food safety, from practising safe food hygiene and learning how to take care when cooking specific foods that may be hazardous (like raw chicken), to reading the labels when buying and preparing food. The WHO Five Keys to Safer Food explain the basic principles that each individual should know all over the world to prevent foodborne diseases.
“It often takes a crisis for the collective consciousness on food safety to be stirred and any serious response to be taken,” says Dr Kazuaki Miyagishima, Director of WHO’s Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses. “The impacts on public health and economies can be great. A sustainable response, therefore, is needed that ensures standards, checks and networks are in place to protect against food safety risks.”
WHO is working to ensure access to adequate, safe, nutritious food for everyone. The Organization supports countries to prevent, detect and respond to foodborne disease outbreaks—in line with the Codex Alimentarius, a collection of international food standards, guidelines and codes of practice covering all the main foods.
Food safety is a cross-cutting issue and shared responsibility that requires participation of non-public health sectors (i.e. agriculture, trade and commerce, environment, tourism) and support of major international and regional agencies and organizations active in the fields of food, emergency aid, and education.
Centre for Robotic Surgery (CRS) is a dedicated urology centre in India that provides state-of-the-art medical facilities and surgical care in all aspects of urology. It’s a super specialty initiative set at Nadiad, Gujarat in India to serve patients with advanced technology. Urology is one of the most competitive areas for surgeons and India has made a significant mark in the eradication of urologic diseases. CRS stands in the second position amongst all urology hospitals in India that is completely devoted for providing treatment to patients suffering from any urological ailments.
Department of urology at CRS has a complete range of comprehensive facilities while managing the complex urological conditions of patients. The goal of CRS is to provide highest level of consistent patient care by using minimally invasive surgical techniques such as Da Vinci Si Robot. With this technique the surgical process is carried out with much precision, which was virtually unthinkable few years ago. Additionally there is screening, staging, and other up to date facilities that is able to locate any urologic disorder at kidney, bladder, and prostate and operate on it accordingly.
The advanced minimally invasive surgery at CRS has proved very advantageous for doctors and patients alike. It has been highly beneficial because there is less surgical complication as very small incision is done and the disease can be easily controlled. Besides the pain & scaring is relatively less, blood loss is very low, and the chances of infection are negligible, thus resulting in faster recovery for patients at comparatively less expense. The entire recuperation process post surgery has become less stressful.
CRS aims to bring world-class medical care within the reach of a common man with the help of technology. Over the years, it has been instrumental in providing clinical services for Urology & Nephrology. Further, the doctors at CRS have a rich global exposure and experience of taking care of patients of various backgrounds. The hospital has extraordinary outpatient services, including proper consultation for all treatment process. Be it nurse, paramedics, and managerial staff – everyone is adequately involved in patient care. We can say the CRS is pioneering its steps extensively to heal urological diseases.
Robotic Surgeries are advanced version of laparoscopic Surgeries. In compared to open surgeries, laparoscopic surgeries are advanced and less invasive. But laparoscopic surgery has its own limitations. It is very effective for normal routine procedures but when there are more complex surgeries involved; option of laparoscopic surgery is not feasible. In such surgeries, greater precision is required and it is only possible by the most advanced robotic surgeries.
In cases such as radical prostatectomy, the target (prostate) is delicate and tightly surrounded with the nerves affecting urinary control and sexual functions. Using the robots your surgeon has a better tool to spare surrounding nerves, which may enhance in recovery experience and clinical outcomes.
Robotic Surgery has added advantage such as:
- Less Pain
- Less Scarring
- Less Blood Loss
- Faster recovery to normal activities
At Centre for Robotic Surgery a super specialty initiative of Muljibhai Patel Urology Hospital, we use da Vinci Si® surgical system instruments for surgeries related to Nephro-Urology. We generally receive the comments that how will the surgery be made? Will there be a doctor available or only robots will perform the surgeries? Well, this article is written to clear those confusions. Let’s observe the picture given in fig (A).
Figure A: da Vinci Si® surgical instrument
In laparoscopic surgeries, several incisions are made and small camera and other instruments are inserted through them. This camera is connected with the visual output unit where surgeons can see inside view of the patients’ body.
In robotic surgery, the surgical instruments are hooked up to the machine, and surgeon sits at one console to operate them. Here high definition 3-D camera is inserted in patient’s body and the 3D display is shown on the screen. We call this entire setup as Robot. Here actual surgery is performed by doctors, but through mechanical arms. In the above image, you can see
- Surgeon’s Console – Surgeon sits here and operates robots. This console also has the video output from where surgeon can view the inner part of patient’s body.
- Image Processing Equipment – It’s a video output to see the ongoing surgery to anesthesiologist, other doctors and nurse.
- Endowrist Instruments – They are the human wrist like instruments to provide superior motion control, precision and fluid ambidexterity.
- Surgical Arm Cart – They are robotic hands acts like human arms
- Hi-Resolution 3-D Endoscope – It has high definition 3-D camera at its end which is inserted in to patient’s body through separate incision.
Now it’s an obvious question that what are the advantages of doing so?
Above is the video snippet from Dr. Mahesh Desai who is current president of Endourology Society and Medical Director at Muljibhai Patel Urology Hospital, Nadiad. He describes the advantages in his video. To view click here.
Advantages of robotic surgeries are:
- High Definition 3-D Vision: You are able to see target organ with much more clarity. The Zoom option shows the picture bigger and 3-D vision shows the depth.
- Greater Precision: In laparoscopy, after long time the surgeon usually gets tired. This effect in tremors in his / her hands. Robotic arms solve this issue. It enables 360 degree moment which is not possible by human hand.
- Quick Recovery: It requires very small incisions to operate through robots. Which is not the case with open surgery? This helps in fewer traumas, less pain and less loss of blood. Ultimately it results in to faster recovery.
A new era of tele-surgery:
Robotic surgery has opened new era of surgery. While human doctors will still perform common types of surgeries, robots will perform complex surgeries that are seemingly impossible even if attempted. The console is not attached with surgical arm-cart. That means surgeon can operate on patient. by sitting at distant place. In future, it will be possible for surgeon to sit in one country and operate a patient located at remote place.
The only point of consideration would be latency – that means there will a time delay in transmission of signals from one end to other end and vice versa. This will lead to delay in moment in surgeon’s hands and robotic hands. But it will be sorted out sooner with the use of technology. This will give birth to the concept of tele-surgery. It will also lead to modify international laws on surgery.
Technology is a boon to medicines. Robotic surgery is increasingly becoming popular. It takes a huge cost of investment and in training and development. Since the purchasing, installment and maintenance costs are very high, the surgery is comparatively costly. Day by day this surgery is becoming popular and sooner the cost associated will be lowered. It requires spreading awareness among people and erasing the myths for traditional thinking of “Robots”.
Source: How Stuff works